HDCN Selected Readings and References     

Hyperphosphatemia: Clinical Complications
and Management in 1998

University of Minnesota
CME Internet Course

Selected References


Block GA, Hulbert-Shearon TE, Levin NW, Port FK. Association of serum phosphorus and calcium phosphate product with mortality risk in chronic hemodialysis patients: a national study. Am J Kidney Dis. 1998;31:607-17.

Delmez JA, Slatopolsky EA. Hyperphosphatemia: its consequences and treatment in patients with chronic renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 1992;19:303-17.

Llach F, Yudd M. The importance of hyperphosphataemia in the severity of hyperparathyroidism and its treatment in patients with chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13:57-61.

Loghman-Adham M. Role of phosphate retention in the progression of renal failure. J Lab Clin Med. 1993;122:15-25.

Lowrie EG, Lew NL. Death risk in hemodialysis patients: the predictive value of commonly measured variables and an evaluation of death rate differences between facilities. Am J Kidney Dis. 1990;15:458-82.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy

Alfrey AC. Aluminum toxicity in patients with chronic renal failure. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 1993;15:593-97.

Almaden Y, Hernandez A, et al. High phosphate level directly stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion and synthesis by human parathyroid tissue in vitro. J Am Soc Nephol. 1998;9(10):1845-52.

Almaden Y, Canalejo A, Hernandez A, et al. Direct effect of phosphorus on PTH secretion from whole rat parathyroid glands in vitro. J Bone Miner Res. 1996;11:970-6.

Delmez JA, Fallon MD, Harter HR, Hruska KA, Slatopolsky EA, Teitelbaum SL. Does strict phosphorus control precipitate renal osteomalacia? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986;62:747-52.

Denda M, Finch J, Slatopolsky E. Phosphorus accelerates the development of parathyroid hyperplasia and secondary hyperparathyroidism in rats with renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis. 1996;28:596-602.

Lopez-Hilker S, Galceran T, Chan YL, Rapp N, Martin KJ, Slatopolsky EA. Hypocalcemia may not be essential for the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal failure. J Clin Invest. 1986;78:1097-102.

Massry SG, Smogorzewski M. Mechanisms through which parathyroid hormone mediates its deleterious effects on organ function in uremia. Semin Nephrol. 1994;14:219-31.

Norris KC, Crooks PW, Nebeker HG, et al. Clinical and laboratory features of aluminum-related bone disease: differences between sporadic and "epidemic" forms of the syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis. 1985;6:342-7.

Sherrard DJ, Hercz G, Pei Y, Maloney NA, Greenwood C, Manuel A, Saiphoo C, Fenton SS, and Segre GV. The spectrum of bone disease in end-stage renal failure&emdash;an evolving disorder. Kidney Int. 1993;43:436-42.

Slatopolsky EA. The role of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;12:3-8.

Slatopolsky EA, Delmez JA. Pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Am J Kidney Dis. 1994;23:229-36.

Metastatic calcification and calciphylaxis

Braun J, Oldendorf M, Moshage W, Heidler R, Zeitler E, Luft FC. Electron beam computed tomography in the evaluation of cardiac calcification in chronic dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 1996;27:394-401.

Drueke TB. A clinical approach to the uraemic patient with extraskeletal calcifications. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1996;11:37-42.

Hsu CH. Are we mismanaging calcium and phosphate metabolism in renal failure? Am J Kidney Dis. 1997;29:641-9.

Llach F. Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (calciphylaxis): an evolving entity? [editorial] Am J Kidney Dis. 1998;32:514-18.

Maher ER, Young G, Smyth-Walsh B, Pugh S, Curtis JR. Aortic and mitral valve calcification in patients with end-stage renal disease. Lancet. 1987;2:875-7.

Ribeiro S, Ramos A, Brandao A, Rebelo JR, Guerra A, Resina C, Vila-Lobos A, Carvalho F, Remedio F,Ribeiro F. Cardiac valve calcification in haemodialysis patients: role of calcium-phosphate metabolism. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13:2037-40.

Rostand SG, Sanders C, Kirk KA, Rutsky EA, Fraser RG. Myocardial calcification and cardiac dysfunction in chronic renal failure. Am J Med. 1988;85:651-7.

Straumann E, Meyer B, Misteli M, Blumberg A, Jenzer HR. Aortic and mitral valve disease in patients with end-stage renal failure on long-term haemodialysis. Br Heart J. 1992;67:236-9.

Phosphate binders

Burke SK, Slatopolsky EA, Goldberg DI. RenaGel, a novel calcium- and aluminum-free phosphate binder, inhibits phosphate absorption in normal volunteers. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1997;12:1,640-4.

Chertow GM, Burke SK, Lazarus JM, et al. Poly[allylamine hydrochloride] (RenaGel): a noncalcemic phosphate binder for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis. 1997;29:66-71.

Delmez JA, Kelber J, Norword KY, Giles KS, Slatopolsky EA. Magnesium carbonate as a phosphorus binder: a prospective, controlled, crossover study. Kidney Int. 1996;49:163-7.

Emmett M, Sirmon MD, Kirkpatrick WG, Nolan CR, Schmitt GW, Cleveland MB. Calcium acetate control of serum phosphorus in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 1991;17:544-50.

Goldberg DI, Dillon MA, Slatopolsky EA, Garrett B, Gray JR, Marbury T, Weinberg M, Wombolt D, Burke SK. Effect of RenaGel®, a non-absorbed, calcium- and aluminium-free phosphate binder, on serum phosphorus, calcium, and intact parathyroid hormone in end-stage renal disease patients. Nephrol Dialysis Transplant. 1998;13:2303-10.

Graff L, Burnel D. A possible nonaluminum oral phosphate binder? A comparative study on dietary phosphorus absorption. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1995;89:373-88.

Janssen MJ, van der Kuy A, ter Wee PM, van Boven WP. Aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate and calcium acetate in chronic intermittent hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol. 1996;45:111-9.

Mai ML, Emmett M, Sheikh MS, Santa Ana CA, Schiller L, Fordtran JS. Calcium acetate, an effective phosphorus binder in patients with renal failure. Kidney Int. 1989;36:690-5.

Oe PL, Lips P, van der Meulen J, de Vries PM, van Bronswijk H, Donker AJ. Long-term use of magnesium hydroxide as a phosphate binder in patients on hemodialysis. Clin Nephrol. 1987;28:180-5.

Ritz E, Hergesell O. Oral phosphate binders without aluminum and calcium&emdash;a pipe-dream? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1996;11:766-8.

Schiller LR, Santa Ana CA, Sheikh MS, Emmett M, Fordtran JS. Effect of the time of administration of calcium acetate on phosphorus binding. N Engl J Med. 1989;320:1110-3.

Sheikh MS, Maguire JA, Emmett M, et al. Reduction of dietary phosphorus absorption by phosphorus binders. A theoretical, in vitro, and in vivo study. J Clin Invest. 1989;83:66-73.

Sperschneider H, Gunther K, Marzoll I, Kirchner E, Stein G. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3): an efficient and safe phosphate binder in haemodialysis patients? A 3-year study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1993;8:530-4.

Slatopolsky E, Weerts C, Norwood K, Giles K, Fryer P, Finch J, Windus D, Delmez J. Long-term effects of calcium carbonate and 2.5 mEq/liter calcium dialysate on mineral metabolism. Kidney Int. 1989;36(5):897-903.

Removal of phosphorus by dialysis

Messa P, Gropuzzo M, Cleva M, Boscutti G, Mioni G, Cruciatti A, Mazzolini S, Malisan MR. Behaviour of phosphate removal with different dialysis schedules. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13(Suppl 6):43-48.

Mucsi I, Hercz G, Uldall R, Ouwendyk M, Francoeur F, and Pierratos A. Control of serum phosphorus without any phosphate binders in patients treated with nocturnal hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1998;53:1399-1404.

Mucsi I and Hercz G. Control of serum phosphate in patients with renal failure--new approaches (editorial comment). Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13:2457-60.

Pierratos A, Ouwendyk M, Francoeur R, Vas S, Raj DSC, Eccestone A, Langos V, Uldall R. Nocturnal Hemodialysis: Three-Year Experience. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998;9(5):859-868.

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